Goa under Bahamani and Vijaynagar rule
Tussle For Goa Between the Vijaynagar & Bahamani Empires
With the fall all the Goa Kadambas, there was a tussle between the rising power of the Vijayanagar Empire and the Bahamanis Muslim sultanate, for the possession of Goa. Sultan Alauddin Hasan Shah that Gangu I of the Bahamanis dealt a severe blow to the kingdom of Sandabur and brought it completely under his control. By 1369 the Bahamanis and recaptured Goa from the Vijayanagar rulers who had taken it over from them in 1956.
They took advantage of dissatisfaction prevailing in the land over the bypassing of the Kadamba kings in the appointment of governors of states, one of which was Goa. King Harihara II conquered Goa in 1377 from the Bahamani sultan Mujahid. In 1440 however, the people of Goa, headed by the remnants of the Goa Kadambas, erupted in a revolt against the Vijayanagar Kings and drove them away. They declared independence of Goa under the general Madhav Mantri, safeguarding it for a span of around twenty five years.
With Virupaksha II as emperor of Vijayanagar in 1465, Goa was again subdued and brought under his control. But the Vijayanagar power was on the verge of decline by that time. There was general dissatisfaction in the land and Arab merchants who had earlier, enjoyed prosperous days in Goa, were being scared away. In these precarious circumstances, around 1470, under orders from the Bahamani sultan Mohammad Shah II, in general Khwaja Gawan, marched into Goa and besieged it by land and sea and Goa capitulated.
In 1479, Vikram Rai, the king of Belgaum, attempted to recover Goa from the Muslims, at the behest of the Vijayanagar rulers.
Rise Of The Adil Shah Empire
A bid for the land of Goa was made by the Vijayanagar ruler himself in 1481, but his attempt was in vain, for the Bahamanis held steadfastly to it. However, the Bahamani Sultan Mohammad Shah himself was facing revolts against his dynasty, which came to a critical head after his death. His empires soon crumbled and was split into five principalities. Goa was taken immediately by Yousef Adil Shah of Bijapur who assumed the title of Khan. Adil shah was the Governor of Bijapur prior to that an took advatage of the decline of the Empire Yousef married a maratha warrior's sister Punji. He was an accomplished musician and scholar that was reflected in art and architecture from this time.
Yousef maintained his summer capital at Ela, now Old Goa, the flourishing riverine port. The city had edifices of imposing architecture and new docks for the construction of large ships to maintain commercial trade with the rest of India and even with foreign countries. Ela was the main import for trade of all variety especially for horses imported from Hormuz which were eagerly sought after by the neighboring kingdoms. Hence every ruler in the area has his eyes cast upon this city on that account.
Decline Of the Adil Shahi Empire
After the conquest of Goa by the Portuguese under Alfonso de albuquerque, Adil Shah the founder of the Empire was killed in battle by Krishna Deva Raya from the Vijaynagar Empire. Adil Shah was succeeeded by his son Ismail Adil Shah. His mother Punji fiercely defended Ismail from rivals as he was a minor at the time of death of his father. Although Adil Shah left behind a strong state, constant pressure from the Marathas and later the Portuguese resulted in the empire crumbling within two centuries of Adil Shah's death.